To describe the rate and 30-day outcomes after gender affirmation surgery in transgender men.
We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study. Patients with male gender who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications between 2013 and 2016 in the American College of Surgeons’ National Surgical Quality Improvement database were identified. Propensity score matching was performed to ameliorate selection bias. Student t test and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare continuous variables between two groups where appropriate. The χ2 and Fisher exact tests were used where appropriate to compare categorical variables across groups. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with any postoperative adverse event.
Of 159,736 hysterectomies performed during the study period, 521 (0.3%) were performed in transgender men. The mean age was 23.9±13.8 years, and the median body mass index was 29.0 (range 24.8–34.2). The majority of patients were white (64.5%). The most common specified diagnosis associated with hysterectomy was gender identity disorder (20.9%). Laparoscopy was the most common route (57.2%) followed by laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (20.0%) and abdominal hysterectomy (15.2%). After propensity matching was performed, the composite rate of postoperative complications was similar between the transgender male and control groups (3.4% vs 3.3%, P=.92). On multivariate logistic regression controlling for age, presence of a major medical comorbidity, and primary mode of surgery, transgender male status and presence of a major medical comorbidity were not significantly associated with complications (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 0.56–2.10 and adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.58–2.27, respectively). Age remained weakly associated with postoperative complications (adjusted OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06), whereas minimally invasive approaches to hysterectomy were significantly associated with lower incidences of complications (vaginal, adjusted OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.002–0.17; laparoscopic adjusted OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.04–0.18; and laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, adjusted OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02–0.20).
Less than 1% of hysterectomies performed annually are for transgender male patients. Postoperative complications after hysterectomy in this patient population are similar to the complication rates found in cisgender women.
Postoperative complication rates after hysterectomy in transgender men are similar to the complication rates found in cisgender women.
Center for Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Obstetrics, Gynecology & Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and MetroHealth, Cleveland, Ohio.
Corresponding author: C. Emi Bretschneider, MD, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Desk A81, Cleveland, OH, 44195; email: email@example.com.
Financial Disclosure The authors did not report any potential conflicts of interest.
Each author has indicated that he or she has met the journal’s requirements for authorship.
Received May 11, 2018
Received in revised form July 16, 2018
Accepted July 26, 2018