Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (IHCP) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including intrauterine fetal demise, spontaneous preterm labor, and meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Studies have yet to determine whether a prior pregnancy complicated by cholestasis is associated with more severe adverse outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy complicated by cholestasis.
This was a retrospective cohort study of multiparous, singleton, nonanomalous live gestations complicated by IHCP at Elmhurst Hospital Center from 2005 to 2019. We compared rates of adverse outcomes in multiparous pregnancies complicated by IHCP with or without history of prior IHCP. Our primary outcome of interest was rates of spontaneous preterm labor. Our secondary outcomes included rates of iatrogenic preterm birth, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, cesarean delivery (CD) for nonreassuring fetal heart tracing, umbilical artery pH less than 7.20, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Chi-square and multivariate regression tests were used to determine the strength of association. In all analyses, a P value less than 0.05 and 95% CI not crossing 1.00 indicated statistical significance. Mount Sinai Icahn School of Medicine IRB approval was obtained for this project.
Of the 795 multiparous pregnancies complicated by IHCP, 618 (77.7%) had no prior history of IHCP and 177 (23.3%) had prior history of IHCP. Multiparous pregnancies with prior history of IHCP had higher rates of prior preterm birth, had earlier gestational age at diagnosis and delivery, and were more likely to receive ursodeoxycholic acid therapy. In subsequent pregnancies with IHCP, history of IHCP was associated with iatrogenic preterm birth and NICU admission. After adjusting for confounders, the association with iatrogenic preterm birth and NICU admission were no longer statistically significant. There was no significant association between history of prior IHCP and other adverse obstetric outcomes.
Findings suggest that history of prior IHCP is not associated with worsening outcomes in subsequent pregnancies complicated by cholestasis.