To describe factors associated with not being tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea infection during pregnancy and for testing positive and to describe patterns of treatment and tests of reinfection.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered at an urban teaching hospital from July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018. Women with at least one prenatal care or triage visit were included. The index delivery was included for women with multiple deliveries. We used logistic regression to analyze factors associated with not being tested and for testing positive for these infections in pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine factors associated with time to treatment and tests of reinfection. We reviewed medical records to determine reasons for delays in treatment longer than 1 week.
Among 3,265 eligible deliveries, 3,177 (97%) women were tested during pregnancy. Of these, 370 (12%) tested positive (287 chlamydia, 35 gonorrhea, 48 both), and 15% had repeat infections. Prenatal care adequacy and insurance status were risk factors for not being tested. Age, race and ethnicity, alcohol use, and sexually transmitted infection history were associated with testing positive. Time to treatment ranged from 0 to 221 days, with the majority (55%) of patients experiencing delays of more than 1 week. Common reasons for delays included lack of clinician recognition and follow-up of abnormal results (65%) and difficulty contacting the patient (33%).
Traditional risk factors are associated with increased risk of infection during pregnancy. Prenatal care adequacy and insurance status were associated with the likelihood of being tested. Delays in treatment and tests of reinfection were common. Point-of-care testing and expedited partner therapy should be explored as ways to improve the management of these infections in pregnancy.