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Treating Myomatous Erythrocytosis Syndrome With Uterine Artery Embolization

Gordon, Brian MD, MSPH; Fischbeck, Tucker DO; Salamo, Russell MD; Schroff, Stuart MD

doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003289
Contents: Leiomyomas: Case Report

BACKGROUND: Myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome, a form of secondary polycythemia associated with uterine leiomyomas, increases the risk of thrombosis and traditionally has been treated with hysterectomy.

CASE: The patient is a 68-year-old woman with 7-year history of polycythemia initially thought to be secondary to a gastrointestinal stromal tumor that persisted after resection. A subsequent search for an alternative etiology led to the discovery of an 11.2-cm submucosal leiomyoma and likelihood of myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome. The patient declined surgical management and continued to undergo recurrent phlebotomy to maintain a hematocrit of less than 45% until consultation with an interventional radiology specialist. She underwent uterine artery embolization in July 2017, and her hematocrit has remained within normal limits through 17 months of follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Uterine artery embolization is an effective alternative treatment modality for myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome.

Uterine artery embolization is an effective alternative treatment modality for myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Department of Radiology, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Corresponding author: Brian Gordon, MD, MSPH, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, LAC+USC Medical Center, 1200 N. State Street, Inpatient Tower, Room C3F107, Los Angeles, CA 90033; email:

Financial Disclosure The authors did not report any potential conflicts of interest.

Presented as an ePoster at the Society of Interventional Radiology's Annual Scientific Meeting, March 17–22, 2018, Los Angeles, California.

Each author has confirmed compliance with the journal's requirements for authorship.

Peer reviews and author correspondence are available at

© 2019 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.