Although obstetric fistula has likely plagued women since the beginning of time, very little research proportionally exists. This article summarizes the most substantial research on the topic and delineates research gaps and future needs. Existing research demonstrates that access to care is the underlying cause of obstetric fistula and that the first attempt at closure holds the highest chance at success, ranging between 84% and 94%. For simple cases, 10 days of a catheter is sufficient, although what constitutes as simple is unclear. Circumferential fistulas are at high risk for ongoing urethral continence. Psychosocial programs are helpful for all women, but those who are “dry” tend to reintegrate into society, whereas those still leaking need additional support. Prenatal care and scheduled cesarean delivery are recommended to avoid another fistula. Gaps in research include accurate prevalence and incidence, interventions to improve access to care, surgical technique, especially for complex cases, and ways to prevent ongoing incontinence, among many others. In all areas, more rigorous research is needed.