To investigate whether the diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in live singletons born to women undergoing fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)—embryo transfer (ET) cycles.
Retrospective cohort study of women with PCOS undergoing fresh IVF-ET cycles between January 2004 and June 2013 resulting in a live singleton birth. Women with PCOS were compared to age-matched controls undergoing IVF for male factor infertility. The incidence of term birth, preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), term LBW and very low birth weight (VLBW) between the two groups were compared. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and adjusted with multivariate logistic regression analysis.
One thousand five patients met inclusion criteria: 164 (PCOS) and 841 (control). There was no difference in baseline demographics or IVF characteristics of the groups. Singletons in the PCOS group had a lower birth weight compared to controls (3,103.1±576.9 grams vs 3,258.4±554.3 grams; P<.01). PCOS was also associated with increased odds of term LBW singletons compared to controls (OR=2.53; 95% CI=1.17–5.50; P=.04). The increased odds remained unchanged when adjusting for total stimulation days, total gonadotropins administered, and number of oocytes retrieved. There was no difference in the incidence of term birth, PTB, or overall VLBW between the two groups.
PCOS is associated with lower birth weights and higher odds of term LBW singletons in women undergoing IVF-ET cycles. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially at the utero-placental unit.