Initial evaluation of the patient with acute abnormal uterine bleeding should include a prompt assessment for signs of hypovolemia and potential hemodynamic instability. After initial assessment and stabilization, the etiologies of acute abnormal uterine bleeding should be classified using the PALM–COEIN system. Medical management should be the initial treatment for most patients, if clinically appropriate. Options include intravenous conjugated equine estrogen, multi-dose regimens of combined oral contraceptives or oral progestins, and tranexamic acid. Decisions should be based on the patient’s medical history and contraindications to therapies. Surgical management should be considered for patients who are not clinically stable, are not suitable for medical management, or have failed to respond appropriately to medical management. The choice of surgical management should be based on the patient’s underlying medical conditions, underlying pathology, and desire for future fertility. Once the acute bleeding episode has been controlled, transitioning the patient to long-term maintenance therapy is recommended.
Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Committee Opinion No. 557. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2013; 121:891–6.