Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder and may affect as many as one in 100 women. The condition results from a deficiency, dysfunction, or absence of von Willebrand factor (VWF). In women, the most common symptom of VWD is menorrhagia. Of women with menorrhagia, 5–20% have been found to have previously undiagnosed VWD. Besides menorrhagia, women with VWD are more likely to experience other conditions that manifest with abnormal reproductive tract bleeding. The patient with a suspected bleeding disorder should be referred to a hemophilia treatment center or hematologist with expertise in bleeding disorders for definitive diagnosis. After diagnosis, the first choice of therapy for the management of menorrhagia in adolescents or adult females who do not desire child bearing is still hormonal contraceptives. Women who fail hormonal contraceptives, yet desire future child bearing, and women who desire pregnancy are candidates for hemostatic therapy, which is generally reserved for patients with VWF levels less than 50 international units/dL. During pregnancy, VWF levels rise, frequently obviating the need for hemostatic therapy at the time of delivery. Minor procedures can be managed with 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin, antifibrinolytic medication, or both, but major surgery or childbirth requires replacement with VWF and should be conducted in a center with available hematologists, anesthesiologists, pharmacists, and laboratory support experienced in the management of bleeding disorders.
Bleeding from von Willebrand disease in women can be managed by oral contraceptives and hemostatic therapy.
From Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
Corresponding author: Andra H. James, MD, Box 3967, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Financial Disclosure Dr. James has research funding and honoraria from CSL Behring (King of Prussia, PA) and honoraria from Grifols USA (Los Angeles, CA). Dr. Manco-Johnson has received research funding from and served on the advisory board for CSL Behring. Dr. Yawn did not report any potential conflicts of interest. Dr. Nichols received institutional clinical trials laboratory support from CSL Behring. Dr. Dietrich has research funding from Bayer (Leverkusen, Germany) and has received honoraria from CSL Behring.