To estimate the rates of urinary tract injury after benign gynecologic surgery. To explore the role of routine intraoperative cystoscopy at benign gynecologic surgery.
We conducted a systematic MEDLINE search for urinary tract injuries at gynecologic surgery for the period from November 1998 to May 2004 and combined this with a previous systematic review performed in the same fashion for the period from January 1966 to October 1998.
METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION:
There were 47 studies that fit our inclusion criteria: 29 that did not use routine intraoperative cystoscopy, 17 that used routine intraoperative cystoscopy, and 1 that reported the frequency of urinary tract injury separately, with and without routine intraoperative cystoscopy. We determined the crude and fitted ureteric and bladder injury rates for each surgery type from the studies where routine intraoperative cystoscopy was not performed and then from the studies where routine intraoperative cystoscopy was performed.
TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS:
From studies without routine cystoscopy, combined ureter and bladder injury rates varied according to the complexity of the surgery, ranging from less than 1 injury per 1000 for subtotal hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy to as many as 13 injuries per 1000 surgeries for laparoscopic hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and for other gynecologic and urogynecologic surgeries. Injury rates were higher when routine intraoperative cystoscopy was used, but the confidence intervals were wider.
The reasons for higher injury detection rates when routine cystoscopy was performed are unclear. Further study is needed to identify the scenarios where routine cystoscopy is warranted after major gynecologic surgery.