Two questions concerning chemotherapy of cervical cancers are addressed in this study. 1) Can the human tumor stem cell assay identify active chemotherapeutic agents?; and 2) Can the human tumor stem cell assay predict which patient's tumors will demonstrate clinical responsiveness to chemotherapy? Sixty-seven of 76 cervical cancer specimens (88.2%) were grown in the human tumor stem cell assay, resulting in 159 separate drug assays. Based on the known activity of standard chemotherapeutic agents demonstrated in clinical trials, cisplatin, bleomycin, vincristine, and mitomycin C were chosen for testing. In vitro sensitivity patterns, seen at one-tenth of the peak plasma drug concentration, were similar to those seen in historic clinical trials. Retrospective correlations between in vitro drug sensitivity data and patient responses to chemotherapy are available from 13 patients, demonstrating clinically helpful predictive capabilities of the assay. Two conclusions were made: 1) The human tumor stem cell assay can determine single agent activity, which is often dose related; and 2) Useful correlations with clinical responses were observed.