Patients (358) with advanced (FIGO stages III and IV) or recurrent endometrial cancer were treated with one of two regimens: 1) melphalan and 5-fluorouracil daily for four days, repeated every four weeks with megace daily for eight weeks and 2) adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil, and cyclophosphamide, intravenous bolus every 21 days with megace daily for eight weeks. All patients were randomized except for 63 with known cardiac disease who were assigned to regimen 1 (to avoid adriamycin) and studied separately. Stratification was effected for performance status, history of previous progestational therapy, presence or absence of measurable disease, and stage of disease. The objective response rate in those with measurable disease was 36.8% in both groups; 36.8% of each group had stable disease, and only 26.4% progressed on treatment. Response was unaffected by site of recurrence, time to first recurrence, presence or absence of previous treatment by progestational or radiation therapy, or age. Grade of tumor and performance status did affect response, although 44 of 57 objective responders had undifferentiated tumors. The two combinations achieved response rapidly, required careful supervision, and were especially useful in treating patients with usually poor prognostic features.