This is a report of a retrospective study of 89 patients who had undergone hysterectomy and oophorectomy. The aims of this study were to identify factors associated with sexual deterioration attributed to the operation. In the sample interviewed, 33 patients (37%) complained of a deterioration of their sexual relationships, which they attributed to the operation. Preoperative expectations of sexual alteration were found to be significantly associated with subsequent sexual dysfunction, and specifically with loss of desire for sexual intercourse. Estrogen administration, while not affecting overall sexual behavior, was specifically associated with less dyspareunia. It was concluded that sexual dysfunction following hysterectomy and oophorectomy was mainly associated with psychologic factors.