The proximity of the ureters to the uterine artery and other vital pelvic structures is a potential cause of operative complications. From July 1965 to July 1970, 617 vaginal hysterectomies were performed at the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Twenty-seven of these patients had postoperative intravenous pyelograms, and abnormal findings related to surgery were found in 5. One patient had unilateral ureteral ligation and a subsequent ureteroneocystotomy. The indications for postoperative intravenous pyelography are reviewed.