This cross-sectional study of 20 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 20 with exfoliative glaucoma (XFG), 20 with exfoliation syndrome (XS) showed that exfoliative group had a significantly lower smell identification level as compared with the control groups.
To investigate smell sensitivity in POAG, XFG, and XFS in comparison with healthy controls.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective, cross-sectional study included 20 patients with POAG, 20 with XFG, and 20 with XFS. The control group consisted of 20 age-matched and sex-matched healthy subjects with no evidence of ocular disease. The Sniffin’ Sticks smell test was used to determine the, threshold values, and to assess the ability of smell identification, and differentiation in all patients One eye per patient was included for statistical purposes. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between the groups. Tukey honestly significant difference was used as a post hoc test when significant differences were detected among the 3 groups.
The XFG, POAG, and control groups showed a significant difference in the odor discrimination, odor identification, and threshold discrimination identification scores. The median (minimum-maximum) smell threshold levels for the POAG, XFG, and XFS groups and healthy controls were 4.5 (0 to 7.5), 4 (0 to 7.5), 5 (4.5 to 6), and 5.5 (4 to 7.5), respectively. The smell differentiation values for the POAG, XFG, and XFS groups and healthy controls were 12 (2 to 14), 8 (0 to 13), 11 (10 to 13), and 12 (9 to 14), respectively. Smell sensitivity for the POAG, XFG, and XFS groups and healthy controls were 26 (4 to 30.5), 19 (0 to 29.5), 28.3 (22.8 to 30.5), and 29 (26.5 to 32), respectively. The smell sensitivity and differentiation were significantly different among the groups (P<0.001). The XFG group had a significantly lower smell identification level than the POAG, XFS, and control groups.
Patients with XFS and XFG revealed reduced smell sensitivity and identification compared with patients with POAG and those without glaucoma. These findings provide new insights into neural degeneration and pseudoexfoliation.