To evaluate the association between macula vascular density assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and central visual field (VF) threshold sensitivities in healthy, glaucoma suspect and glaucoma patients.
A total of 185 eyes from 38 healthy participants, 31 glaucoma suspects, 72 mild glaucoma patients, and 44 moderate/severe glaucoma patients from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study who underwent OCT-A images of the macula and 10-2 VF testing were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. The relationship between central VF mean sensitivity and superficial macula whole-image vessel density (wiVD), and the relationship between the MS of the four central points of the 10-2 VF (MS4) and parafoveal vessel density (pfVD), were assessed using linear regression models.
Mean wiVD (52.5%, 49.8%, 49.4% and 45.2%, respectively) and mean pfVD (54.9%, 52.1%, 51.8% and 47.7%, respectively) were found to be significantly higher in healthy eyes and glaucoma suspect eyes compared to glaucoma eyes with mild and moderate/severe disease (ANCOVA P<0.001). The univariate associations between 10-2 mean sensitivity and wiVD (R2=26.9%) and between 10-2 MS4 and pfVD (R2=16.8%) were statistically significant (P<0.001 for both). After adjusting for scan quality, age, gender and intraocular pressure, superficial macula wiVD and pfVD were still independently associated with central VF loss. Macula wiVD performed better (AUROC=0.70) than GCC thickness (AUROC=0.50) for differentiating between glaucoma suspect and healthy eyes (P=0.010).
Loss of OCT-A macula vessel density is associated with central 10-2 VF defects. Macula vessel density is a clinically relevant parameter that may enhance monitoring of glaucoma suspects and patients.
*Hamilton Glaucoma Center, Shiley Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA
†Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan
‡Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
Disclosures: Funding/Support: Supported in part by National Institutes of Health/National Eye Institute grants EY011008 (L.M.Z.), EY14267 (L.M.Z.), EY019869 (L.M.Z.), EY027510 (L.M.Z.), core grant P30EY022589; an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness (New York, NY); grants for participants’ glaucoma medications from Alcon, Allergan, Pfizer, Merck, and Santen. The sponsor or funding organization had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
Financial Disclosures: Rafaella C. Penteado: none; Linda M. Zangwill: Research support – Carl Zeiss Meditec, Heidelberg Engineering, National Eye Institute, Topcon Inc; Fabio B. Daga: none; Luke J. Saunders: none; Patricia Isabel C. Manalastas: none; Takuhei Shoji: Research support – Pfizer, Senju, Alcon, Santen, Kowa, Otsuka; Tadamichi Akagi: Research support – Santen, Pfizer, Senju, Alcon, Kowa; Mark Christopher: none; Adeleh Yarmohammadi: none; Sasan Moghimi: none; Robert N. Weinreb: Research support –Carl Zeiss Meditec, Genentech, Heidelberg Engineering, National Eye Institute, Optovue, Optos and Topcon; Consultant – Aerie Phamaceuticals, Alcon, Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Novartis, Sensimed, Valeant.
Reprints: Robert N. Weinreb, MD, Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0946 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Received December 21, 2017
Accepted April 8, 2018