In this population-based, cross-sectional study of Indian and Malay adults in Singapore aged 40 years or above, intermediate or high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was associated with 50% higher odds of having glaucoma.
The relationship between OSA and glaucoma is unclear. We assessed the association between the risk of OSA and glaucoma in an Asian population.
Materials and Methods:
In this population-based, cross-sectional study, we included Indian and Malay adults aged 40 years or above recruited between 2011 and 2015. Glaucoma was assessed by trained ophthalmologists and classified into primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). OSA risk was assessed with the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, High blood pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and male Gender (STOP-Bang) questionnaire and categorized as low risk (<3) or intermediate/higher risk (≥3). We used multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the relationship between risk of OSA and glaucoma adjusted for key variables, and further stratified for subtype and ethnicity.
Of the 3126 participants (mean age: 63.1±9.6 y; 52.5% female), 134 (4.3%) had glaucoma, comprising 86 (2.8%) POAG, 22 (0.7%) PACG and 26 (0.8%) secondary glaucomas, and 1182 (37.8%) had an intermediate/higher risk of OSA. Compared with individuals with a low risk of OSA, individuals with intermediate/higher risk had 50% greater odds of having glaucoma (odds ratio: 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–2.33; P=0.035). We observed a nonsignificant increase in likelihood of having POAG in those with intermediate/higher risk of OSA compared with those with low risk. The OSA-glaucoma relationship was modified by ethnicity, with Malays with intermediate/higher risk of OSA having a 2-fold risk of having any glaucoma (odds ratio: 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–3.59 P=0.019); while the same elevated risk was not observed for Indians.
Intermediate or high risk of OSA is associated with 50% higher odds of having glaucoma in our Singaporean population, with a 2-fold higher risk of glaucoma observed in Malays (but not Indians); however a conformational sleep study is needed.