Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) by latanoprost in treatment-naive eyes is significantly correlated to an increase in vessel density (VD) at the optic nerve head (ONH).
To evaluate the effect of topical latanoprost on ocular microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
Patients and Methods:
In this prospective case-control study, 26 eyes from 18 treatment-naive subjects in whom prostaglandin analogue (PGA) latanoprost 0.005% was initiated were included as cases. In 10 out of the 18 subjects, medication was initiated in only 1 eye; their contralateral untreated eyes were used as controls. OCTA (AngioVue, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA) was performed at baseline and ≥3 weeks after commencing treatment. Main outcome measures were change in flow area and VD at the ONH, radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC), and macula. Comparison between the 2 visits was performed using a linear mixed model adjusted for intereye correlation and mean ocular perfusion pressure.
IOP decreased by 26.1%±11.3% (P<0.001) in the cases and 0.18%±12.2% (P=0.63) in controls. Significant correlations between change in IOP and change in ONH VD (correlation coefficient [r]=−0.42, P=0.04), and between change in IOP and change in RPC VD (r=−0.48, P=0.02) were observed in the cases, whereas none were observed in the controls. When multiple testing was considered, no significant changes in flow area and VD were observed in cases and controls.
The reduction of IOP by a PGA in treatment-naive eyes was significantly correlated to the increase in ONH VD and RPC VD. This may indicate a mechanism by which IOP reduction modulates the risk of glaucoma progression by improving ocular microperfusion.