Preoperative intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine produced a 33% reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) within 15 minutes of administration in patients with glaucoma.
To evaluate the effect of preoperative IV dexmedetomidine on IOP in adult patients undergoing glaucoma surgery under local anesthesia.
In a prospective interventional case series, 12 patients with uncontrolled IOP (IOP>24 mm Hg in both the eyes) with the systemic status of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I-II, received IV dexmedetomidine 0.6 µg/kg 30 minutes preoperatively. The IOP of the nonsurgical eye (measured with Perkins tonometer), the heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were recorded 5 minutes prior, 15 minutes and 2 hours after IV dexmedetomidine administration, and were compared using analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference tests.
There were 4 women and 8 men with a mean age (±SD) of 60.6±10.4 years. The mean number of antiglaucoma medications was 4.3±1.3. The mean pre-dexmedetomidine IOP was 31.5±5.6 mm Hg. At 15 minutes post-dexmedetomidine administration, the mean and percentage drop in IOP were 10.2±3.2 mm Hg (P=0.001) and 33%±11%, respectively. The mean and percentage drop in systolic BP were 18±20 mm Hg (P=0.01) and 12%±14%, and drop in diastolic BP were 6.5±10 mm Hg (P=0.05) and 7%±11%, respectively. The mean and percentage drop in HR were 2±0.6 bpm (P=0.48) and 2%±13%, respectively. None of the subjects experienced any medication-related adverse effects. At 2 hours, the mean and percentage drop in IOP were 5.3±3 mm Hg and 17%±11%, respectively.
In the small sample of (ASA I-II) patients studied, preoperative dexmedetomidine produced a significant drop in IOP (33%) within 15 minutes of IV administration in patients with glaucoma that was reversing at 2 hours, with a good safety profile.