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Outcomes of Combined Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Trabeculectomy Revision With Adjunctive Antimetabolite

Lin, Mark, MD; Alizadeh, Reza, MD; Law, Simon K., MD, PharmD

doi: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001135
Original Studies

Purpose: Evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) control in combined Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation and trabeculectomy revision with adjunctive antimetabolite compared with AGV alone in patients who failed prior trabeculectomy.

Methods: Consecutive cases of combined AGV implantation and trabeculectomy revision with adjunctive antimetabolite (combined group) after January 3, 2014 were case-matched to cases of AGV implantation alone (AGV-alone group) before January 3, 2014. Primary outcome measures were qualified success with stratified IOP targets based on criteria: (A) IOP≤18 mm Hg and 20% IOP reduction; (B) IOP≤15 mm Hg and 25% IOP reduction; (C) IOP≤12 mm Hg and 30% IOP reduction, and hypertensive phase (HP) rate. Secondary outcome measures were 1-year postoperative IOP and number of glaucoma medications and complications.

Results: Twenty eyes (20 patients) in each group were included. Cumulative success for combined group and AGV-alone group at 1-year were: 74.0% versus 59.2% (criterion A, P=0.221), 61.9% versus 49.5% (B, P=0.183), and 54.2% versus 30.0% (C, P=0.033), respectively. In total, 50% (10 eyes) in the AGV-alone group developed HP compared with 15% (3 eyes) in the combined group (P=0.041). At 1-year follow-up, combined group had statistically significantly lower IOP than AGV-alone group (10.1±4.4, 13.3±2.9 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.028). There were no cases of bleb-related infections, choroidal effusion or hemorrhage, persistent hypotony, or hypotony maculopathy in either group.

Conclusions: Combining AGV implantation with trabeculectomy revision with antimetabolite was associated with better tonometric success compared with AGV implantation alone in patients with previously failed trabeculectomy, particularly when a low IOP target (≤12 mm Hg) is required. Revised trabeculectomy may provide complimentary outflow facility to AGV.

Glaucoma Division, Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA

Supported by the Research for Prevention of Blindness.

Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reprints: Simon K. Law, MD, PharmD, 100 Stein Plaza #2-235, Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (e-mail:

Received August 25, 2018

Accepted November 2, 2018

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