To examine the association between open-angle glaucoma and erectile dysfunction (ED), and investigate the correlation in severity between these 2 conditions.
Cross-sectional study with patient questionnaire and retrospective chart review. A total of 167 male patients over 40 years of age who attended ophthalmology clinic visits in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, participated in the study by providing written consent and responding to the survey. Patients with previous radiation or surgical prostate treatment were excluded, leaving final sample sizes of 61 glaucoma patients and 67 control patients. Presence and severity of ED was determined using a validated patient questionnaire (the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire). Presence of glaucoma was based on previous clinical diagnosis, and severity was graded based on visual field index using a 30-2 visual field test with the SITA Standard protocol. Bivariate analysis examined the presence of ED in glaucoma patients versus controls. Risk factors including dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking were adjusted for using multiple logistic regression. The association between glaucoma and ED severity was assessed with correlation and scatterplot analysis.
Glaucoma was found to be a significant risk factor for ED in our population, with an odds ratio of 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.83). Severity of glaucoma and ED were significantly correlated (r=0.365, P=0.007).
Our results demonstrate that there is a positive association between the presence of ED and the diagnosis of glaucoma and a positive association between the severity of ED and the severity of glaucoma.
*Faculty of Medicine
†Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
‡Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Reprints: Nawaaz A. Nathoo, MD, FRCSC, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Vancouver General Hospital Eye Care Centre, 2550 Willow Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 3N9 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Received December 20, 2015
Accepted July 13, 2016