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Outcomes of Sequential Glaucoma Drainage Implants in Refractory Glaucoma

Hu, Wanda D. MD; Moster, Marlene R. MD; Zheng, Cindy X. MD; Sabherwal, Naryan MD; Pequignot, Edward MS; Cvintal, Victor MD; Ekici, Feyzahan MD; Waisbourd, Michael MD

doi: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000000362
Online Articles: Original Studies

Purpose: To describe the outcomes of eyes that have undergone a second glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) surgery.

Methods: A retrospective review of eyes that underwent a second GDI surgery from 2006 to 2013 was conducted. Primary outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and success rates. Secondary outcome measures included glaucoma medication use, visual acuity, and number of reoperations. Success was defined as 6≤IOP≤21 with at least 20% IOP reduction, and no increase in the number of glaucoma medications from baseline at 3 months of follow-up or more.

Results: Sixty-five eyes (63 patients) had a mean follow-up of 22.4±19.9 months. The most frequently placed second GDIs were an Ahmed FP7 (49%) or a Baerveldt 250 (26%) in the inferotemporal (46%) or inferonasal (35%) quadrant. At 3-year follow-up, IOP was reduced from 25.8±7.7 to 17.4±9.9 mm Hg (P=0.004) and the number of glaucoma medications decreased from 3.6±1.2 to 2.5±1.4 (P=0.01) compared with baseline. The median time to failure was 24.7±5.8 months. There was no significant difference in failure rates for type of sequential GDI (P=0.80) or plate location (P=0.34). There was no significant difference in visual acuity between baseline and 3-year follow-up (P=1.0). The most common postoperative complication was corneal edema (n=9, 14%).

Conclusions: Most eyes undergoing a second GDI achieve adequate IOP control with fewer antiglaucoma medications. Failure rates were similar regardless of quadrant selection or GDI type.

*Glaucoma Research Center, Wills Eye Hospital

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Biostatistics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA

Presented at the 24th American Glaucoma Society Annual Meeting in Washington, DC on February 28, 2014 and at the 2014 ARVO Annual Meeting, Leading Eye and Vision Research in Orlando, FL on May 8, 2014.

Disclosure: M.R.M.: Consultant for Alcon, Allergan, Solx, Merck; received grants to Institution from Aerie, Aeon, New World Medical, Alcon, Glaukos, Bausch and Lomb; payment for Lectures/Speaker’s Bureau for Alcon, Allergan, Ista, Merck, Bausch and Lomb, New World Medical, TBI, Solx. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reprints: Wanda D. Hu, MD, Wills Eye Hospital Glaucoma Research Center, 840 Walnut Street, Suite 1110, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (e-mail:

Received December 16, 2014

Accepted November 17, 2015

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