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Dynamic Contour Tonometer and Goldmann Applanation Tonometer Performance in a Developing World Setting: Intraocular Pressure Measurement Acquisition and Precision

Cheng, Jason MBBS, MRCOphth*; Salam, Tahrina MBBS, MRCOphth*; Russell, Paul J. MBBCh, MRCGP; Heath, David G. FRCOphth*,‡; Kotecha, Aachal PhD*,‡

doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e31825c0f9e
Original Studies
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Purpose: To examine tonometer usability and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement precision in a general ophthalmology clinic in the developing world.

Methods: A total of 100 eyes of 100 participants attending a charity ophthalmology walk-in clinic in Ghana, West Africa, had IOP measurements made with the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) and the dynamic contour tonometer (DCT) in a randomized order by 2 clinicians. Both clinicians had extensive experience in using the GAT but were relatively inexperienced in using the DCT. The repeatability coefficient was calculated to determine intraobserver variability. Reproducibility of interobserver IOP measurements was calculated using Bland-Altman analysis.

Results: IOP could not be measured in 3% of eyes using the GAT and in 16% of eyes using the DCT. The repeatability coefficient for the GAT and DCT were 2.5 and 3.0 mm Hg, respectively. The DCT repeatability coefficient was 2.3 mm Hg when only “good quality” measurements were considered. The interobserver mean difference (limits of agreement) were –0.8 mm Hg (±3.9 mm Hg) for the GAT and 0.3 mm Hg (±3.3 mm Hg) for the DCT. DCT IOP measurements were unobtainable in eyes with corneal surface irregularities or excessive eye or lid movements.

Conclusions: The DCT shows good measurement precision with comparable repeatability and superior reproducibility compared with the GAT. The DCT score is useful in its objectivity and improving repeatability. However, patient and ocular surface factors may impede DCT measurements, impacting upon its general usability in a high volume, walk-in community clinic.

*Glaucoma Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

Churchill Medical Centre, Chingford

NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK

Disclosure: A.K. and D.G.H. have received a proportion of their funding from the Department of Health's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reprints: Aachal Kotecha, PhD, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Glaucoma Research, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 162 City Road, London EC1V 2PD, UK (e-mail: aachalkotecha@gmail.com).

Received March 24, 2011

Accepted April 23, 2012

© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.