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Assessing Quality of Life in Patients With Glaucoma Using the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15) Questionnaire

Goldberg, Ivan FRANZCO, FRACS* † ‡; Clement, Colin I. MBBS, PhD*; Chiang, Tina H. PharmD§; Walt, John G. MBA§; Lee, Lauren J. PharmD; Graham, Stuart FRANZCO, MS* ‡; Healey, Paul R. MMed, FRANZCO* † ‡ ¶

doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e3181752c83
Original Studies

Purpose To measure and compare quality of life in patients with and without glaucoma using the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 Questionnaire, and to determine the association between glaucoma-related quality of life and clinical indices of glaucoma.

Patients and Methods Using a prospective, cross-sectional study, we collected demographic information via interviews and administered the questionnaire to assess glaucoma-related quality of life in 121 patients with glaucoma and 31 subjects without glaucoma. Visual function was measured objectively by clinical examination. Group differences and the association between questionnaire scores and clinical indices were evaluated using nonparametric analysis of variance and correlation coefficients, respectively. The relationship between the likelihood of reporting vision-related dysfunction and glaucoma severity was examined using logistic regression.

Results Patients with glaucoma had significantly poorer glaucoma-related quality of life than controls (P<0.001). Summary scores differed significantly among patients with mild, moderate, and severe glaucoma demonstrating a trend of poorer quality of life with increasing disease severity. Activities involving glare and dark adaptation were most problematic for all, but patients with glaucoma felt significantly more compromised in central and near vision, peripheral vision, and outdoor mobility (all P<0.001). Glaucoma-related quality of life scores correlated moderately and significantly with visual acuity, disease severity, and visual field measurements, but only severe glaucoma was a significant predictor of self-perceived deficits in glaucoma-related quality of life (P=0.038).

Conclusions The Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 Questionnaire correlated well with objective measures of visual function and discriminated between quality of life in patients with glaucoma and subjects without glaucoma.

*Eye Associates

Sydney Eye Hospital

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Millennium Institute

§Allergan Inc, Irvine

Department of Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

Supported by unrestricted funding from Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.

Reprints: Ivan Goldberg, FRANZCO, FRACS, Eye Associates, Floor 4, 187 Macquarie Street, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia (e-mail:

Received for publication September 3, 2006; accepted March 17, 2008

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.