Secondary Logo


doi: 10.1097/SGA.0000000000000463
CE Test: Focus on Clinical Assessment

Instructions for Taking the CE Test Online:

  • Read the article. The test for this CE activity can be taken online at Tests can no longer be mailed or faxed.
  • You will need to create a free login to your personal CE Planner account before taking online tests. Your planner will keep track of all your Lippincott Professional Development online CE activities for you.
  • There is only one correct answer for each question. A passing score for this test is 7 correct answers. If you pass, you can print your certificate of earned contact hours and the answer key. If you fail, you have the option of taking the test again at no additional cost.
  • For questions, contact Lippincott Professional Development: 1-800-787-8985.

Registration Deadline: March 5, 2021

Disclosure Statement:

The authors and planners have disclosed that they have no financial relationships related to this article.

Provider Accreditation:

Lippincott Professional Development will award 1.0 contact hours for this continuing nursing education activity.

Lippincott Professional Development is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. This activity is also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for 1.0 contact hours. Lippincott Professional Development is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia, Georgia, and Florida CE Broker #50-1223. Your certificate is valid in all states.


  • The registration fee for this test is $7.50 for members; $10.00 for nonmembers.
Back to Top | Article Outline


GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide information about the clinical assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:

  1. Specify the pathogenesis and risk factors for the development of GERD.
  2. Identify the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of GERD.
  1. The prevalence of GERD peaks between the ages of
    1. 20 and 30.
    2. 30 and 60.
    3. 65 and 85.
  2. As noted in the article, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations can be triggered by
    1. cholecystitis.
    2. gastric distention.
    3. inflammatory bowel disease.
  3. Patients with severe GERD frequently have evidence of a hiatal hernia that can cause increased
    1. gastric acid secretion.
    2. gastric emptying.
    3. retrograde acid flow rates.
  4. A small proportion of people with GERD will develop Barrett's esophagus, a risk factor for
    1. adenocarcinoma.
    2. small-cell carcinoma.
    3. squamous cell carcinoma.
  5. The most common symptom of GERD is
    1. sore throat.
    2. chronic cough.
    3. heartburn.
  6. As noted in the article, which of the following foods or drink lower the esophageal sphincter pressure and are associated with GERD?
    1. alcohol
    2. shellfish
    3. dairy products
  7. New or increased use of which medication predisposes to GERD by decreasing lower esophageal sphincter tone?
    1. thiazide diuretics
    2. β-adrenergic agents
    3. metoclopramide
  8. The authors report that symptoms that are more suggestive of esophageal problems than cardiac problems include chest pain that is
    1. retrosternal and has lateral radiation.
    2. linked to meals and/or relieved with antacids.
    3. accompanied by diaphoresis and vomiting.
  9. As noted in the article, the simplest approach to diagnosing uncomplicated GERD is through the use of
    1. a proton pump inhibitor.
    2. an over-the-counter antacid.
    3. an H2 blocker.
  10. First-line treatment for patients with mild, infrequent symptoms of GERD includes
    1. raising the head of the bed at least 45 degrees.
    2. smoking cessation.
    3. moderate exercise for 20 minutes, 3 times per week.


Need CE STAT? Visit for immediate results, other CE activities, and your personalized CE planner tool!

© 2019 by the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc.