This study aimed to characterize a population of middle-aged South Korean women at risk of developing dysphagia and to identify relevant risk factors. This study describes a cross-sectional survey. Data on the general characteristics of the participants, risk factors for dysphagia, depression, and dental pain were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Among the 247 participants, 80 (32.4%) were assigned to the dysphagia “risk” group. Logistic regression indicated that perceived health status, low body mass index, dental pain, and depression were significant risk factors for developing dysphagia. A greater proportion of individuals were classified as having depression in the dysphagia “risk” group. Depression and dental pain were recognized as dominant risk factors for dysphagia. This work provides a basic reference that can be useful for the development of a general health education program for the prevention of dysphagia in community-dwelling middle-aged women.