This descriptive, correlational study was conducted to describe constipation risk assessment and the affecting factors of constipation risk of patients who have undergone major orthopedic surgery. Data were collected using a patient information form and the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS) on the second postoperative day. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. The mean age of the 83 patients studied was 53.75 ± 21.29 years. Subjects were hospitalized in the orthopedic wards for 14.39 ± 15.17 days, and their current bowel habit was 2.18 ± 1.80 stools per week. Of the sample, 63.9% were female, 69.9% of the patients had a history of previous surgery, 45.8% had hip/knee arthroplasty surgery, and 55.4% had bowel problems during the hospitalization period. Patients had a medium risk for constipation according to the CRAS subscale (gender, mobility, and pharmacological agents). Total CRAS score was 12.73 ± 4.75 (medium risk) on the second postoperative day. In addition, age, marital status, educational level, having a history of surgery, and bowel elimination problems did have a significant effect on constipation risk. On the basis of the findings from this study, nurses must learn the postoperative constipation risk of orthopedic patients to implement safe and effective interventions.