This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unanticipated uterine cancer and cervical cancer in women undergoing hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse.
Using data from the 2015–2018 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, we identified adult women who underwent a hysterectomy with a concurrent procedure for uterovaginal prolapse. Patients who underwent a radical hysterectomy or had other procedures or diagnoses suggestive of preoperatively suspected or known gynecologic cancer were excluded. Our outcome measures were pathology-confirmed diagnoses of uterine cancer and cervical cancer. Bivariate statistical tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify patient characteristics associated with the likelihood of having unanticipated uterine cancer.
Among 9,687 patients meeting the sample eligibility criteria (median age, 60 years), 51 (0.53%; 95% confidence interval, 0.39%–0.69%) had a diagnosis of uterine cancer. Forty-three (84.3%) were stage I-IB. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older age (adjusted odds ratio, 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.47–5.51, for age >60 vs 41–60 years) and uterine weight greater than 250 g (adjusted odds ratio, 4.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.48–10.79) were associated with a significantly higher likelihood of having unexpected uterine malignancy. In addition, in a subsample of 7,908 patients who underwent a total hysterectomy, 7 (0.09%; 95% confidence interval, 0.04%–0.18%) had a diagnosis of cervical cancer.
The risk of unexpected uterine cancer and cervical cancer in women undergoing hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse was relatively low but should be appropriately considered when counseling patients desiring uterine- or cervix-sparing procedures.