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Evaluating the Legal Impact of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Programs: An Empirically Validated Toolkit for Practitioners

Campbell, Rebecca PhD1; Townsend, Stephanie M. PhD2; Shaw, Jessica MA1; Karim, Nidal PhD3; Markowitz, Jenifer ND, RN, WHNP-BC, SANE-A4

doi: 10.1097/JFN.0000000000000049
Original Article

There has been sustained interest in the academic literature and in policy circles regarding how Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs may bolster sexual assault prosecution rates in their communities, in addition to the health care they provide to their patients. To build evaluation capacity among forensic nurses so that they can evaluate their own programs, a practitioner-oriented, step-by-step evaluation toolkit (the SANE Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit) that can be used by SANE-A and SANE-P programs, and their community partners, to examine sexual assault prosecution rates in their local jurisdictions was created and validated. This article describes the process of creating and empirically validating the toolkit and presents the toolkit itself and accompanying resources that are available to practitioners. This article also provides recommendations regarding program readiness to engage in evaluation activities, without compromising program sustainability and patient care.

Author Affiliations:1Department of Psychology, Michigan State University; 2Townsend Consulting & Evaluation, Inc.; 3CARE USA.; and 4Independent Forensic Nursing Consultant.

This project was supported by Grants No. 2005-WG-BX-0003 and 2009-MU-MU-0002 awarded by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Correspondence: Rebecca Campbell, PhD, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, Psychology Building, 316 Physics, Room 127C, East Lansing, MI 48824. E-mail:

Received June 23, 2014; accepted for publication September 18, 2014.

© 2014 by the International Association of Forensic Nurses. All rights reserved.
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