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Butyrate enemas do not affect human colonic MUC2 and TFF3 expression

Hamer, Henrike M.a b; Jonkers, Daisy M.A.E.a b; Renes, Ingrid B.c; Vanhoutvin, Steven A.L.W.a b; Kodde, Andreaa b; Troost, Freddy J.a b; Venema, Koena d; Brummer, Robert-Jan M.a b e

European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology: September 2010 - Volume 22 - Issue 9 - p 1134-1140
doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e32833a6ca0
Original Articles: Colonic disorders

Introduction The colonic mucus layer plays an important role in the protection of the intestinal epithelium and mainly consists of mucin glycoproteins (primarily MUC2 in the colon) trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and secretory IgA. Butyrate is a major end product of fermentation of dietary fibres and is associated with beneficial effects on colonic health. Earlier in-vitro and animal studies showed that butyrate modulates MUC2 and TFF3 expression and mucin secretion, although data from human studies are not yet available.

Methods Sixteen healthy volunteers and 35 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in clinical remission self-administered a 60 ml rectal enema containing 100 mmol/l butyrate or placebo once daily for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively. After each treatment, biopsies were taken from the distal sigmoid for quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis of MUC2 and TFF3. In addition, mucosal sections were stained with high iron diamine-alcian blue to distinguish between sialomucins and sulphomucins. To analyse total mucin secretion and secretory IgA concentrations, 24 h faeces were collected during the day before the endoscopic examination.

Results The butyrate intervention did not significantly modulate the expression of MUC2 (fold change: 1.04 and 1.05 in healthy volunteers and ulcerative colitis patients, respectively) or TFF3 (fold change: 0.91 and 0.94 in healthy volunteers and UC patients, respectively). Furthermore, the percentage of sialomucins, mucus secretion and secretory IgA concentrations were not affected by the butyrate intervention in both the groups.

Conclusion Butyrate exposure in healthy volunteers and UC patients in remission did not affect the measured parameters of the colonic mucus layer.

aTI Food and Nutrition, Wageningen

bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Nutrim, Maastricht University

cDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus MC and Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam

dTNO Quality of Life, Department of Biosciences, Zeist, The Netherlands

eÖrebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro, Sweden

Correspondence to Dr Daisy M.A.E. Jonkers, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Maastricht University, (Box 46), PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands

Tel: +31(0) 433884295; fax: +31(0) 433875006;


Received 31 January 2010 Accepted 30 March 2010

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.