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Effects of carbonated water on functional dyspepsia and constipation

Cuomo, Rosarioa; Grasso, Raffellaa; Sarnelli, Giovannia; Capuano, Gaetanoa; Nicolai, Emanuelea; Nardone, Gerardoa; Pomponi, Domenicoa; Budillon, Gabrielea; Ierardi, Enzob

European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology: September 2002 - Volume 14 - Issue 9 - p 991-999
Original Articles: Helicobacter pylori, dyspepsia

Objective  The effects of carbonated beverages on the gastrointestinal tract have been poorly investigated. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effect of carbonated water intake in patients with functional dyspepsia and constipation.

Methods  Twenty-one patients with dyspepsia and secondary constipation were randomized into two groups in a double-blind fashion. One group (10 subjects) drank carbonated water and the other (11 subjects) tap water for almost 15 days. Patients were evaluated for dyspepsia and constipation scores, and underwent a satiety test by a liquid meal, radionuclide gastric emptying, sonographic gallbladder emptying and colonic transit time, using radio-opaque markers.

Results  The dyspepsia score was significantly reduced with carbonated water (before = 7.9 ± 2.8 vs after = 5.4 ± 1.7;P< 0.05) and remained unmodified after tap water (9.7 ± 5.3 vs 9.9 ± 4.0). The constipation score also decreased significantly (P< 0.05) after carbonated water (16.0 ± 3.9 vs 12.1 ± 4.4;P< 0.05) and was not significantly different with tap water (14.7 ± 5.1 vs 13.7 ± 4.7). Satiety was significantly reduced with carbonated water (before = 447 ± 146 kcal vs after = 590 ± 245;P< 0.01). Gallbladder emptying (delta percent contraction) was significantly improved only with carbonated water (39.9 ± 16.1%vs 53.6 ± 16.7%;P< 0.01).

Conclusion  In patients complaining of functional dyspepsia and constipation, carbonated water decreases satiety and improves dyspepsia, constipation and gallbladder emptying.

aEpatogastroenterologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘Federico II', Napoli and bCattedra di Gastroenterologia, Università degli Studi di Foggia, Foggia, Italy

Correspondence to Dott. Rosario Cuomo, Epatogastroenterologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘Federico II', Via Sergio Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy Tel: +39 81 7463892; fax: +39 81 7463892; e-mail:

Sponsorship: This study was partially supported by Co.Ge.Di S.p.A. (Terme Uliveto, Pisa, Italy).

Received 19 December 2001

Revised 16 April 2002

Accepted 17 May 2002

© 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.