The response rate of patients to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is quite low. We aimed to assess the efficiency of HBV vaccination in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) receiving anti-TNF agents as well as in healthy controls. We also evaluated the impact of different factors on the efficacy of HBV vaccination.
Patients with CIDs receiving anti-TNF agents and healthy controls vaccinated for HBV were included in the study during 2018–2019. An adequate immune response and an effective immune response to HBV were defined as >10 IU/L and > 100 IU/L, respectively.
Among 274 participants, 187 were patients with CID and 87 were healthy controls. The mean age of the patients with CID (43.9 ± 11.7 years) was significantly higher than that of the healthy controls (31.4 ± 7 years) (P = 0.000). Adequate immune response was 60.8 and 94.3% in patients with CID and healthy controls (P = 0.000), respectively, whereas effective immune response was 37.9 and 75.9% (P = 0.000), respectively. In logistic regression analysis, male sex [odds ratio (OR), 0.408; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.201–0.830; P = 0.013), use of infliximab (OR, 2.694; 95% CI, 1.203–6.035; P = 0.016) and sertoluzimab (OR, 3.307; 95% CI, 1.287–8.498; P = 0.013), vaccination after anti-TNF treatment (OR, 0.224; 95% CI, 0.083–0.602; P = 0.003) were identified as risk factors of nonresponse to HBV vaccine.
Infliximab and sertoluzimab usage, male sex, and vaccination after anti-TNF treatment were risk factors of nonresponse. HBV vaccination should be given to patients with CID before initiation of anti-TNF treatment and awareness should be spread on this subject.