Background and aims
Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is still a matter of debate. We conducted this study to evaluate the probable factors that predict the recurrence of SBP in patients who recovered from the first episode of SBP and the long-term outcomes of SBP recurrence.
One hundred twenty-four patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, SBP and did not receive secondary prophylaxis either with norfloxacin or other antibiotics were included in this prospective cohort pilot study. Clinical, biochemical and ascitic fluid analysis parameters were evaluated. Ascitic fluid interferon-γ-induced protein (IP-10), calprotectin, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured by ELISA.
Of these, 76 patients survived with an in-hospital mortality rate of 38.7%. The survivors were classified into two groups according to recurrence and nonrecurrence of SBP and survival time, clinical parameters and cause of death were investigated. Thirty-one participants had one or more attacks of SBP, with a recurrence rate of 40.8% within one-year follow-up. Before discharge, multivariate analysis showed that ascitic IP-10 (≥1220 pg/ml), ascitic calprotectin (≥550 ng/ml), serum albumin (≤2.5 g/dl), nonuse of prophylactic β-blockers and use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) were the independent variables in predicting recurrent SBP. Sepsis-related organ failure was the most common etiology of mortality in the recurrent SBP group within 3 and 6 months.
Increased ascitic calprotectin and IP-10, hypoalbuminemia, nonuse of prophylactic β-blockers and use of PPI were independently associated with increased SBP recurrence rate. Sepsis-related organ failure was the most common etiology of mortality.