Hepatic hemangioma is common among benign liver tumors and usually grows slowly. About 50–70% of hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic, and management is not necessary; however, management should be considered in symptomatic patients. The optimal management of symptomatic hepatic hemangioma depends on multiple factors. Invasive management of symptomatic hepatic hemangioma mainly consists of surgery and interventional radiology, including transarterial embolization, ablation, percutaneous sclerotherapy, and percutaneous argon–helium cryotherapy. Although both surgery and interventional radiology are promising in the management of symptomatic hepatic hemangioma, multiple and/or giant hemangiomas represent a clinical dilemma because the complication rate and recurrence rate are relatively high, and symptom relief is not always achieved. However, a review of recent advances in treatment is lacking. We therefore summarized the current invasive management techniques for symptomatic hepatic hemangioma to potentially facilitate clinical decision-making.
aDepartment of Liver Surgery, Peking Union Medical College
bDepartment of Interventional Therapy, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital
cThe Seventh Department of Plastic Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
* Wenfang Dong and Bin Qiu contributed equally to the writing of this article.
Received 17 December 2018 Accepted 2 March 2019
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Correspondence to Haifeng Xu, MD, Department of Liver Surgery, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1, Shuaifu Garden, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730, China, Tel/fax: +86 010 691 52830; e-mail: email@example.com