Review ArticlesThe association between functional dyspepsia and depression: a meta-analysis of observational studiesLin, Songa,*; Gao, Taob; Sun, Chongxiua; Jia, Mengrua; Liu, Chengxiab; Ma, Aiguoa Author Information aThe College of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao bDigestive Endoscopy Center, Hospital Affiliated Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou, China *Song Lin and Tao Gao contributed equally to the writing of this article. Correspondence to Aiguo Ma, MD, PhD, The College of Public Health, Qingdao University, 38 Dengzhou Road, Qingdao, Shandong 266021, China Tel/fax: +86 532 8381 2434; e-mail: [email protected] European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology: August 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 8 - p 911-918 doi: 10.1097/MEG.0000000000001451 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Concomitant functional dyspepsia (FD) and psychosocial stressors have been reported; however, the association between FD and depression remains controversial and no quantitative meta-analysis exists. Published articles were identified through a comprehensive review of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to the 8 July 2018. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals and subgroup analyses were calculated using a random-effects model. Findings for a total of 59 029 individuals were pooled across 23 studies and examined. Our analyses showed a positive association between FD and depression, with an OR of 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 2.02–3.81; I2=100%). In the subgroup analysis, FD patients in Europe (OR=6.19) were more likely to have depression compared with Asians (OR=2.47); the overall significance results decreased the most in subgroup which the overall significance of the subgroup analyses results decreased the most in studies that adjusted for BMI (OR=1.42). Our meta‐analysis showed a positive association between FD and depression. Further large‐scale prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the causality between FD and depression. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.