The influence of ethnicity on pain complicating ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy (US-guided PLB) and its clinical impact has not been reported to date.
Consecutive adults from a multiethnic background, undergoing an US-guided PLB, were independently assessed for pain up to 6 h after the procedure. Clinical and demographic parameters were analysed to determine independent predictors of significant pain after PLB. Willingness to undergo a repeat procedure was assessed 1 week after PLB.
Data from 203 patients (median age 50 years; 43.9% female; ethnicity: Malay 41.5%, Chinese 40%, Indian 18%; median BMI 27.7 kg/m2; median waist circumference 92.0 cm) were analysed. Pain after US-guided PLB was experienced in 133 (61.1%) patients, with severity grades as follows: none, n=81 (39.9%); mild, n=56 (27.6%); moderate, n=51 (25.1%); and severe, n=15 (7.4%). Analgesia requirements correlated well with severity of pain. Independent predictors of significant pain after PLB (moderate and severe categories) in patients included age less than 50 years [odds ratio (OR) 3.0], female sex (OR 3.7), Indian ethnicity (OR 2.9) and Malay ethnicity (OR 2.7), but not number of needle passes, BMI and educational levels. Patients who experienced moderate/severe pain were less willing to undergo a repeat PLB compared with those who experienced mild/no pain (60.9 vs. 82.8%, P=0.001).
Ethnicity has an important role in the development of pain after US-guided PLB. This has a significant impact on willingness to repeat the procedure.
Departments of aMedicine
bRadiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur
cMedical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh, Malaysia
Correspondence to Sanjiv Mahadeva, MBBS, MRCP, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: +603 7949 2299; fax: +603 7949 2950; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received July 4, 2015
Accepted July 29, 2015