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Hepatitis B virus-related combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic analysis of 390 cases

Chu, Kai-jiana; Lu, Chong-dea; Dong, Huib; Fu, Xiao-huia; Zhang, Hong-weic; Yao, Xiao-pinga

European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology: February 2014 - Volume 26 - Issue 2 - p 192–199
doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e3283625df9
Original Articles: Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Background The reported treatment outcomes of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (HCC-CC) are inconsistent and the clinicopathological factors influencing treatment outcome remain to be defined.

Patients and methods Patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC-CC undergoing surgical treatment at our institution between January 1997 and September 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify independent clinicopathological factors affecting surgical outcome.

Results A total of 390 patients with HBV-related HCC-CC were included in this study; there were 328 men and 62 women, with a median age of 49 years (range 21–77 years). Among these patients, 74.4% had underlying liver cirrhosis. The median tumor size was 6.5 cm (range 1.3–33 cm) with 68.7% microvascular invasion and 12.3% lymphatic metastasis. The median survival after surgical resection was 1.68 years and the cumulative survival at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years was 62.1, 46.4, 32, and 25.5%, respectively. The disease-free survival at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years was 36.1, 22.3, 15, and 11.3%, respectively. Independent predictors for decreased survival were male sex, tumor number (≥2), major thrombus, microvascular thrombus, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) over 60 U/l, and carbohydrate antigen 19–9 level. Independent negative factors affecting disease-free survival included tumor size (>5 cm), major thrombus, and GGT over 60 U/l.

Conclusion Long-term surgical survival of HBV-related HCC-CC seemed to be influenced by sex, tumor-related factors (tumor number, major thrombus, and microvascular thrombus), serum GGT, and carbohydrate antigen 19–9 level. Tumor size, major thrombus, and serum GGT level tended to be associated with disease-free survival.

aDepartment VI of Hepatic Surgery

bDepartment of Pathology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital

cDepartment of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health Service, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China

Correspondence to Kai-jian Chu, MD, Department VI of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 225 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200438, China Tel: +86 21 65564166; fax: +86 21 65562400; e-mail:

Received January 24, 2013

Accepted April 17, 2013

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins