Genetic variants at the CARD15 and IBD5 loci are strongly associated with Crohn's disease (CD), but evidence of the effect of these variants on the clinical expression of CD is conflicting and has often been hampered by small sample sizes. We studied 630 well-characterized patients to clarify the genotype/phenotype relationship in CD.
Patients and healthy controls were genotyped for three common mutations in CARD15 and a marker of the IBD5 risk haplotype. Allele frequencies were compared between phenotypic subgroups using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. Genotype/phenotype analysis was carried out using multinomial logistic regression modelling allowing for adjustment for correlated or confounding factors.
The mean age at diagnosis was significantly lower in carriers of the CARD15 or IBD5 risk alleles. After correction for age and smoking, CARD15 mutations were strongly associated with both ileal disease (P=8.8×10−6) and stenotic disease (P=0.003), but the association with stenotic disease appeared to be due to a confounding effect with ileal disease. CARD15 mutations were also associated with the presence of granulomas (P=5.7×10−5), which remained significant after adjustment for age at diagnosis and disease location (P=0.0047). The IBD5 risk haplotype frequency was significantly elevated in cases with perianal disease (P=0.028) and axial spondyloarthropathy (P=0.012).
Genetic variants at the CARD15 and IBD5 loci have diverse effects on clinical expression in CD. CARD15 mutations are significantly correlated with the presence of granulomas.
aDivision of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, King's College London School of Medicine, Guy's Hospital
bDepartment of Gastroenterology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital
cInstitute for Digestive Diseases, University College London Hospitals Trust, London, UK
Correspondence to Professor Christopher G. Mathew, PhD, Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London School of Medicine, 8th Floor Guy's Tower, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
Tel: +44 207 188 3713; fax: +44 207 188 2585; e-mail: Christopher.firstname.lastname@example.org
*Clive M. Onnie and Sheila A. Fisher have contributed equally to the work.
Received 18 December 2006 Accepted 26 July 2007