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Diet habits, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, green tea drinking, and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the Chinese population

Wang, Jian Minga b; Xu, Biaoa; Rao, Jian Yud; Shen, Hong Bingc; Xue, Heng Chuanb; Jiang, Qing Wua

European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology: February 2007 - Volume 19 - Issue 2 - p 171-176
doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e32800ff77a
Case Reports

Objective This study aims to investigate the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in relation to exogenous factors in a rural area of China with a high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted in Yangzhong County, Jiangsu Province, China, with 355 histologically confirmed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases recruited between 1 January 2004 and 28 February 2006 and 408 controls matched by sex and age, randomly selected from the local population.

Results Stratified logistic regression analysis by sex revealed that hot-temperature food items, pork braised in brown sauce and old stocked rice intake could increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with odds ratio of 2.127 (95% confidence interval: 1.394–3.245), 2.059 (95% confidence interval: 1.417–2.993) and 9.059 (95% confidence interval: 5.930–13.840), respectively, in men and 3.048 (95% confidence interval: 1.733–5.364), 1.914 (95% confidence interval: 1.159–3.162) and 14.532 (95% confidence interval: 7.816–27.019), respectively, in women, whereas diet high in salt and chili, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only showed possible risk effects in men with odds ratio 2.338 (95% confidence interval: 1.568–3.485), 3.378 (95% confidence interval: 2.117–5.389), 1.976 (95% confidence interval: 1.337–2.921) and 2.197 (95% confidence interval: 1.510–3.195), respectively. Green tea drinking showed a protective effect in women (odds ratio=0.257; 95% confidence interval: 0.070–0.941).

Conclusions Findings from this study provided evidence that dietary habits, tobacco-smoking and alcohol drinking contribute to the etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A healthy dietary habit, with smoking cessation and alcohol controlling is of a great importance in the prevention of esophageal cancer.

aDepartment of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai

bYangzhong Cancer Research Institute, Jiangsu

cDepartment of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

dDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA

Correspondence to Professor Qing Wu Jiang, MD MPH, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032, China

Tel: + 86 21 54237435; fax: + 86 21 54237710; e-mail:

Received 27 May 2006 Accepted 21 August 2006

© 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.