REVIEW ARTICLEEmergencies and acute diseases in the collected works of Hippocrates: observation, examination, prognosis, therapyAskitopoulou, Helena,c; Stefanakis, Georgiosa,d; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth E.a,d; Papaioannou, Alexandraa,c; Agouridakis, Panagiotisb,cAuthor Information Departments of aAnaesthesiology bEmergency Medicine cFaculty of Medicine, University of Crete dUniversity Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece Parts of this manuscript were presented in a lecture during the VI Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress in Kos, Greece, 12 September 2011. Correspondence to Helen Askitopoulou, MD, PhD, DA, FRCA, FESEM Hon, 31 Stefanou Nikolaidi Street, Heraklion GR 71305, Crete, Greece Tel: +30 2810 319166; fax: +30 2810 392409; e-mail: [email protected] European Journal of Emergency Medicine: December 2016 - Volume 23 - Issue 6 - p 399-405 doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000415 Buy Metrics Abstract The collected works οf Hippocrates include a wealth of references to emergencies and acute conditions; if the physician could treat these, he would be considered superior to his colleagues. Works most relevant to current Emergency Medicine are presented. They indicate Hippocrates’ remarkable insight and attention to the value of close observation, meticulous clinical examination, and prognosis. Hippocrates and his followers disdained mystery and were not satisfied until they had discovered a rational cause to diseases. They assigned great significance to distressing signs and symptoms – the famous Hippocratic face, the breathing pattern, pain, seizures, opisthotonus – pointing to a fatal outcome, which they reported to their patient. The principles of treatment of emergencies, such as angina, haemorrhage, empyema, ileus, shoulder dislocations and head injuries, are astonishingly similar to the ones used nowadays. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.