Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome worldwide. Due to the decreasing family size in Liaoning province. The Bethesda and Amsterdam II criteria have lower sensitivity and specificity and are not suitable for the local population. Immunohistochemistry screening for mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer can improve the detection rate of LS.
All newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery between January 2018 and June 2020 at Cancer Hospital of China Medical University and Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from Liaoning China were included retrospectively, and the ratio of universal LS screening by immunohistochemistry, MMR protein deficiency (dMMR) ratio, MLH1 loss, MSH2 loss, MSH6 loss, and PMS2 loss was analyzed. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with pMMR and dMMR were analyzed.
A total of 7019 colorectal cancer patients underwent surgery and 4802 (68.41%) patients were screened by immunohistochemistry for MMR, 258 (5.37%) cases were reported to have a loss of MMR expression. In the dMMR group, a higher number of patients were under 50 years old, more tumors were located at the right colon, less patients have lymph node metastasis, more tumors were stage II, and histological types of mucinous carcinoma or signet ring carcinoma were more common, compared with the pMMR group. Only 2.71% dMMR patients meet Amsterdam criteria II, 2.71% of patients meet Revised Bethesda guidelines, and 17.83% meet Chinese LS criteria. Twenty-five dMMR patients were confirmed by next-generation sequencing and five families were confirmed as Lynch family.
These data imply that universal screening for LS by immunohistochemistry may be effective in Liaoning province.