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Coffee and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies

Bravi, Francescaa; Tavani, Alessandraa; Bosetti, Cristinaa; Boffetta, Paolob; La Vecchia, Carloc

European Journal of Cancer Prevention: September 2017 - Volume 26 - Issue 5 - p 368–377
doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000252
Review Article: Gastrointestinal Cancer

An inverse association has been reported between coffee drinking and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease (CLD), but its magnitude is still unclear. Thus, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that investigated the association between coffee consumption and the risk of HCC or CLD. We separately estimated the relative risk (RR) of the two conditions, for regular, low, and high consumption compared with no or occasional coffee consumption; we also calculated the summary RR for an increment of one cup of coffee per day. Twelve studies on HCC (3414 cases) and six studies on CLD (1463 cases) were identified. The summary RRs for HCC were 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55–0.78] for regular, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66–0.91) for low, and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.43–0.58) for high coffee consumption, respectively. The summary RR for an increment of one cup per day was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81–0.90). The summary RRs for CLD were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.47–0.82) for regular, 0.72 (95% CI: 0.59–0.88) for low, 0.35 (95% CI: 0.22–0.56) for high, and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65–0.83) for an increment of one cup per day. The present meta-analysis provides a precise quantification of the inverse relation between coffee consumption and the risk of HCC, and adds evidence to the presence of an even stronger negative association with CLD.

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aDepartment of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

bThe Tisch Cancer Institute and Institute of Translational Epidemiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

cDepartment of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

Correspondence to Francesca Bravi, PhD, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy Tel: +39 023 901 4773; fax: +39 023 320 0231; e-mail: francesca.bravi@marionegri.it

Received December 18, 2015

Accepted March 30, 2016

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.