Oral carcinoma and precancers are major public health challenges in India and other developing countries.
Aim of the study was to assess the associations of demographic characteristics, addictions, chief complaints of mouth/oral and clinical diagnosis by cytology smear and punch biopsy in early detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Methods Study was designed on retrospective data of case files of CDC, CNCI, Kolkata, from patients attended from January 1996 to September 2016. History was taken, histopathology and Pap smear were performed. Descriptive statistical analysis, cross-tabulation and Pearson’s Chi-square test were done.
Total participants (n = 692); 110 (15.9%) having history of swallowing betel leaf, nut lime, dokta, jarda, catecheu with an average of 11 years. Three hundred twenty-five (46.9%) had multiple addiction (cigarette/bidi/tobacco/all). Ninety-eight (12.1%), 99 (12.2%) and 68 (8.4%) were addicted to cigarette, bidi and chewing tobacco, respectively. Twenty-nine participants were addicted to alcohol; 18 (2.6%) and 11 (1.5%) took country and foreign alcohol correspondingly. Clinicians thoroughly examined lips (4.1%), buccal mucosa (27.3%), gingival (2.8%), tongue (23.1%), hard and soft palate (4.9%), mouth loor (5.2%) and other parts (32.3%); diagnosed participants as normal (22.8%)/benign (23.1%)/premalignant (39.1%)/malignant (14.8%). Smears confirmed 60, 131, 42, 9 and 8 cases as carcinoma, mild, moderate, severe dysplasia and inflammation, respectively. The punch biopsy identified 11 carcinomas, two severe, two moderate and seveeen mild dysplasia’s. Chi-square test showed significant association between smear and examination (P = 0.022), diagnosis and examinations of the oral cancer patients (P = 0.0001).
The study provided strong evidence that betel leaf, chewing tobacco, smoking and alcohol are independent risk factors for oral cancer. Cytological smear and biopsy are cost-effective approaches for early detection.