Research paper: LifestyleRisk of cancer in individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders: a registry-based study in Reggio Emilia, ItalyMancuso, Pamelaa; Djuric, Oliveraa,,b; Collini, Giorgiaa; Serventi, Emanuelac; Massari, Marcod; Zerbini, Alessandroe; Giorgi Rossi, Paoloa; Vicentini, MassimoaAuthor Information aEpidemiology Unit, AziendaUSL–IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia bCenter for Environmental, Nutritional and Genetic Epidemiology (CREAGEN), Section of Public Health, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena cAddiction Care Unit, AziendaUSL–IRCCS di Reggio Emilia dInfectious Disease Unit, AziendaUSL–IRCCS di Reggio Emilia eUnit of Clinical Immunology, Allergy and Advanced Biotechnologies, AziendaUSL–IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy Received 26 June 2019 Accepted 4 October 2019 Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (www.eurjcancerprev.com). Correspondence to Olivera Djuric, MD, PhD, Servizio Epidemiologia, Direzione Sanitaria-Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Via Amendola 2, 42122, Reggio Emilia, Italy, Tel: +390522335470; fax: +390522335460; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org European Journal of Cancer Prevention: May 2020 - Volume 29 - Issue 3 - p 270-278 doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000553 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Aims of this population-based cohort study was to compare the overall and site-specific cancer incidence in individuals with alcohol or drug use disorders with incidence of the general population, and to estimate excess cancer risk in a subgroup of individuals who have hepatitis C virus or HIV infection. The study included 4373 residents of Reggio Emilia province diagnosed with alcohol or drug use disorders during the period from 1 January 1985 to 31 December 2014. All newly diagnosed cancers registered from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014 were taken into account to calculate the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of cancers of any site and of site-specific cancers. SIR of cancer at any site was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–1.9). Anogenital cancers were associated with the highest excess risk (SIR=11.9; 95% CI 4.9–28.5), followed by oesophageal (SIR=9.5; 95% CI 3.6–25.3) and cervical cancer (SIR=8.6; 95% CI 2.8–26.7). Excess risk of all cancer sites, except for breast cancer, was observed among individuals with alcohol use disorders and of all cancer sites, except breast and kidney cancers, among individuals with drug use disorders. Among hepatitis C virus-positive individuals, cancer at any site risk was 1.9 (95% CI 1.2–3.1) and among HIV-infected individuals it was 3.3 (95% CI 1.8–5.7). Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders face a higher risk of various cancers. Effective interventions to prevent or reduce the harm of substance abuse and risky behaviours in this population are warranted. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.