Review Article: Gastrointestinal CancerGastric cancer: epidemiology, biology, and prevention: a mini reviewLyons, Kiaraa; Le, Linh C.f,,g; Pham, Yen T.-H.g; Borron, Clairec; Park, Jong Y.b; Tran, Chi T.D.h; Tran, Thuan V.i,,j; Tran, Huong T.-T.i,,j; Vu, Khanh T.k; Do, Cuong D.l; Pelucchi, Claudiom; La Vecchia, Carlom; Zgibor, Janicea; Boffetta, Paoloc,,*; Luu, Hung N.d,,e,,*Author Information aDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida bDepartment of Cancer Epidemiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida cIcahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York City, New York dDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health eDivision of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Hillman Cancer Canter, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania fVinUniversity Project-Health Sciences gVinmec Healthcare System hVietnam Colorectal Cancer and Polyp Research Program, Vinmec Healthcare System iVietnam National Cancer Hospital jVietnam National Cancer Institute kDepartment of Gastroenterology, Bach Mai Hospital lDepartment of Infectious Disease, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam mDepartment of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy *Paolo Boffetta and Hung N. Luu contributed equally to the writing of this article. Received 21 August 2018 Accepted 23 August 2018 Correspondence to Hung N. Luu, MD, PhD, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Hillman Cancer Center, UPMC Cancer Pavilion, 5150 Centre Avenue, Suite 4C, Room 466, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA Tel: + 1 412 623 3386; fax: + 1 412 623 3303; e-mail: [email protected] European Journal of Cancer Prevention: September 2019 - Volume 28 - Issue 5 - p 397-412 doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000480 Buy Metrics Abstract Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The objective of this article is to review the epidemiology and biology of gastric cancer risk. This literature review explores the biological, clinical, and environmental factors that influence the rates of this disease and discuss the different intervention methods that may not only increase the awareness of gastric cancer but also increase screening in efforts to reduce the risk of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori infection is the primary risk factor for gastric cancer. Additional risk factors include geographical location, age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, and genetics. Primary and secondary prevention strategies such as dietary modifications and screenings are important measures for reducing the risk of gastric cancer. Interventions, such as H. pylori eradication through chemoprevention trials, have shown some potential as a preventative strategy. Although knowledge about gastric cancer risk has greatly increased, future research is warranted on the differentiation of gastric cancer epidemiology by subsite and exploring the interactions between H. pylori infection, genetics, and environmental factors. Better understanding of these relationships can help researchers determine the most effective intervention strategies for reducing the risk of this disease. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.