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The incidence rates and survival of gallbladder cancer in the USA

Jaruvongvanich, Veeravicha,c; Yang, Ju Dongb; Peeraphatdit, Thoetchaib; Roberts, Lewis R.b

European Journal of Cancer Prevention: January 2019 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 - p 1–9
doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000402
Research Papers: Gastrointestinal Cancer

Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy in most countries. The racial and sociodemographic factors associated with its incidence and survival are poorly defined. We aimed to investigate population-based gallbladder cancer incidence and survival trends on the basis of clinical characteristics and sociodemographic factors in the USA. Gallbladder cancer incidence and survival data from 2001 to 2012 were obtained from 18 registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Incidence rates and Joinpoint trends were calculated by demographic subgroup. Survival trends were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 7769 patients were identified. The overall gallbladder cancer incidence rates did not significantly change during the 2001–2012 period. Incidence rates were three times higher in Hispanics and 1.6 times higher in Blacks compared with Whites. Over the time period, incidence rates significantly increased among Blacks and decreased among Hispanics. Male sex [hazard ratio (HR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.17], older age (HR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.53–1.96), and single and divorced statuses (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.09–1.30 and 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01–1.24) were independently associated with shorter overall survival, whereas higher education (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82–0.97) and higher income (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82–0.96) were associated with longer survival. Furthermore, overall survival has improved in all races/ethnicities except for Hispanics and Blacks. The overall incidence rates for gallbladder cancer were stable during 2001–2012. Hispanics have the highest incidence rates, but the incidence rates in Blacks are on the rise.

aDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii

bDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

cDepartment of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

Correspondence to Lewis R. Roberts, MBChB, PhD, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA Tel: +1 507 266 3239; fax: +1 507 284 0762; e-mail:

Received March 3, 2017

Accepted June 13, 2017

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