Review Article: Gastrointestinal CancerPancreatic cancer control is vitamin D the answer?Iqbal, Sarah; Naseem, ImranaAuthor Information Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India Correspondence to Imrana Naseem, PhD, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, UP, India Tel: +91 971 906 9125; fax: +91 571 270 6002; e-mail: email@example.com Received October 21, 2014 Accepted April 10, 2015 European Journal of Cancer Prevention: May 2016 - Volume 25 - Issue 3 - p 188-195 doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000167 Buy Metrics Abstract Pancreatic cancer is characterized by late detection, resistance to therapy, poor prognosis, and an exceptionally high mortality rate. Epidemiology ascribes a chemopreventive role to vitamin D in several cancers including pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D therapy has been ascribed a role previously in tumor inhibition and differentiation in addition to reduction of inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the role of vitamin D in pancreatic cancer prevention or therapy remains elusive to date. Studies have shown a negative correlation between the risk of pancreatic cancer and serum vitamin D levels. It is believed that vitamin D binding to certain conserved sequences called vitamin D response elements in the DNA can alter the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. Recent research has elucidated the role of zinc in carcinogenesis, which in turn is found to be affected by vitamin D supplementation. In the light of numerous new-found roles for vitamin D, we review and evaluate the potential actions of the sunshine vitamin with respect to pancreatic cancer prevention and therapy. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.