Research Papers: Life StyleNicotine depedence and salivary cotinine concentration in daily smokersFu, Marcelaa,c,e; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.a,c,e; Agudo, Antonib,d; Pascual, José A.f,g; Ariza, Carlesh,i; Moncada, Albertj; Fernández, Estevea,c,e The DCOT Study InvestigatorsAuthor Information aTobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme bNutrition, Environment and Cancer Unit, Institut Català d’Oncologia-ICO cCancer Control and Prevention Group dNutrition, Environment and Cancer Group, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge-IDIBELL eDepartment of Clinical Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona-Campus de Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat fBioanalysis Research Group, Neuropsychopharmacology Programme, IMIM-Hospital del Mar Research Institute gDepartment of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra hEvaluation and Intervention Methods Unit, Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona-ASPB iCIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona jHealth Promotion Unit, Terrassa City Council, Terrassa, Spain. Determinants of COTinine (DCOT) Study Investigators: Antoni Agudo, Carles Ariza, Josep M. Borràs, Esteve Fernández, Marcela Fu, Mireia Jané, Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez, Albert Moncada, Manel Nebot, José A. Pascual, Mercè Peris, Esteve Saltó, Jonathan M. Samet, Anna Schiaffino, Jorge Twose. Correspondence to Dr Esteve Fernández, Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme, Institut Català d’Oncologia-ICO. Av. Gran Via de L’Hospitalet, 199–203, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Tel: +34 932607357; fax: +34 93 2607956; e-mail: [email protected] Received March 16, 2011 Accepted June 15, 2011 European Journal of Cancer Prevention: January 2012 - Volume 21 - Issue 1 - p 96-102 doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32834a7e59 Buy Metrics Abstract There is scant information on nicotine dependence in smokers not seeking cessation treatment. This study analyses the relationship between nicotine dependence, measured by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), and salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of smokers from the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional study (2004–2005) of a representative sample of the general population of Barcelona, Spain (n=1245). The analysis included 196 daily smokers aged more than 16 years. Information on smoking was obtained by questionnaire and cotinine concentration was determined in saliva. Geometric means of cotinine concentration by every single FTND item were computed, and multivariate linear regression was used to explore the relationship among these variables. Participants smoked a mean of 17.0 cigarettes per day, and the mean FTND score was 3.27 (95% confidence interval: 2.92–3.61). Around 17% of subjects (95% confidence interval: 12.0–22.5%) had high nicotine dependence. Cotinine concentration differed significantly by nicotine dependence levels. In a multiple linear regression model including the sum of the FTND items 2, 3, and 6, and the single FTND items 1, 4, and 5, adjusted for sex, the time to first cigarette after waking up (item 1), the number of cigarettes smoked daily (item 4), and smoking more in the first hours of the day (item 5) were significantly related to salivary cotinine concentration (R2=0.414). Salivary cotinine levels were associated with nicotine dependence as measured by the FTND, especially with the items on daily tobacco consumption, time to first cigarette after waking up, and smoking more in the first hours of the day. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.