Review Article: Life StyleAlcohol and wine in relation to cancer and other diseasesGiacosa, Attilioa,b; Adam-Blondon, Anne F.p; Baer-Sinnott, Saraq; Barale, Robertoc; Bavaresco, Luigid; Di Gaspero, Gabrielee,f; Dugo, Laurag; Curtis Ellison, Robertr; Gerbi, Vincenzoj; Gifford, Dunq✠; Janssens, Jaaks; La Vecchia, Carlok,l; Negri, Evak; Pezzotti, Mariom; Santi, Leonardoh; Santi, Lucai; Rondanelli, Mariangelan,oAuthor Information aDepartment of Surgery, University of Genoa bDepartment of Gastroenterology, Policlinico di Monza, Monza cDepartment of Biology, University of Pisa dResearch Centre for Viticulture (CRA), Conegliano (TV) eDipartimento di Scienze Agrarie ed Ambientali, University of Udine fIstituto di Genomica Applicata, Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico Luigi Danieli, Udine gUniversità Campus Bio-Medico hNational Commitee for Biosecurity, Biotechnology and Life Sciences iUniversity of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome jDi. Va. PRA, Microbiology and Food Technology Sector, University of Turin kMario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research lDepartment of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Milan mDepartment of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Verona nDepartment of Applied Health Science, University of Pavia oASP (Azienda di Servizi alla Persona) of Pavia, Pavia, Italy pInstitut Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Evry, France qOldways Preservation Trust rBoston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA sEuropean Cancer Prevention Organization, Hasselt, Belgium Correspondence to Professor Attilio Giacosa, PhD, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Policlinico di Monza, Via Amati 111, Monza 20900, Monza Brianza, Italy Tel: +39 3299262099; fax: +39 010587341; e-mail: [email protected] ✠Deceased. Received April 1, 2011 Accepted April 1, 2011 European Journal of Cancer Prevention: January 2012 - Volume 21 - Issue 1 - p 103-108 doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32834761d3 Buy Metrics Abstract Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased overall mortality, cancer, liver, and cardiovascular diseases; but low doses of alcohol (up to one drink per day) are not associated with the risk of any cancer site with the exception of breast cancer and possibly of oral and pharyngeal cancers. Moreover, recent evidence indicates that moderate alcohol and specifically wine intake provides cardioprotection and neuroprotection and may increase longevity. Various experimental data hypothesize a potential cancer chemopreventive role of some grape extracts, and complete sequencing of the grapevine genome has revealed genes responsible for the synthesis of health-promoting compounds (resveratrol and other polyphenols), thus advocating the development of future potential nutraceutical strategies. This focuses on the pros and cons of moderate alcohol and wine consumption and opens a debate on this topic. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.