Research papers: Breast CancerTranslational approaches for the prevention of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancerLi, Yuxin; Brown, Powel H.Author Information Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Breast Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA Correspondence to Powel H. Brown, Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Breast Center, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, MS 600, Houston, TX 77030, USA Tel: +1 713 798 1600; fax: +1 713 798 1657; e-mail: email@example.com Sponsorship: This work was supported by NCI/NIH, Grant RO1 CA10121. European Journal of Cancer Prevention: June 2007 - Volume 16 - Issue 3 - p 203-215 doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e328011ed98 Buy Metrics Abstract Breast cancer prevention has focused heavily on endocrine interventions using selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors. Tamoxifen, the stereotypical selective estrogen receptor modulator, significantly reduces the breast cancer incidence in high-risk women. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors, however, only prevent the development of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and have no effect in reducing the risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, which has poor prognosis. Thus, preventive therapies for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer are clearly needed. Recently, a number of novel chemopreventive agents targeting nonendocrine pathways have been developed and shown to prevent estrogen receptor-negative mammary tumorigenesis in animal models. These agents include rexinoids, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and others. In this review, we discuss the effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors, as well as novel agents targeting nonendocrine pathways. We also discuss the promise of combining these agents for the effective prevention of all forms of breast cancer. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.