1) Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA USA
2) John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD USA
3) Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, RI USA
4) College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL USA
5) Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
6) Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC USA
7) Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH USA
8) Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA USA
9) Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse (CoRAL), Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA USA
10) A.J. Drexel Autism Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA USA
11) Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA
12) School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA USA
13) Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY USA
14) Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis CA, USA
15) Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA USA
*See Acknowledgments for full listing of collaborators
Conflicts of Interest: Joseph Braun and his institution were financially compensated for his services as an expert witness for plaintiffs in litigation related to PFAS-contaminated drinking water. All other authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest.
Source of Funding: Research reported in this publication was supported by the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program, Office of The Director, National Institutes of Health, under Award Numbers U2COD023375 (Coordinating Center), U24OD023382 (Data Analysis Center, Hamra, Burjak); U24OD023319 with co-funding from the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research (PRO Core); P01ES022841; RD83543301, R01ES027051 (Woodruff) UH3OD023272 (Schantz, Woodruff, Morello-Frosch, Padula); UH3OD023349, R01HD083369 (O’Connor); UH3OD023286 (Oken), UH3OD023318 (Dunlop); UH3OD023348 (O’Shea, Fry); UH3OD023289 (Ferrara, Croen), UH3OD023275, NIGMS P20GM104416 (Karagas), UH3OD023365 (Hertz-Picciotto), UH30D023342 (Lyall, Bennett, Schmidt), U2CES026542 (Kannan), UH3OD023248 (Dabelea, Starling). J.L.A. was additionally supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (K99ES032481).
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Data and Computing Code Availability: Data are accessible through the NIH Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program, with restrictions. Data for this study were centrally collected following the execution of analysis-specific Data Use Agreements between each cohort and the ECHO Data Analysis Center (DAC) at Johns Hopkins University. Data cannot be shared publicly but researchers who meet the ECHO criteria for confidential data access can request access via contacting the ECHO Data Analysis Center: [email protected]. Software code to recreate the primary results of this work are maintained by the ECHO Data Analysis Center and can be shared upon request.
Acknowledgments: The authors wish to thank our ECHO colleagues, the medical, nursing and program staff, as well as the children and families participating in the ECHO cohorts. We also acknowledge the contribution of the following ECHO program collaborators: ECHO Components—Coordinating Center: Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina: Smith PB, Newby KL; Data Analysis Center: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD: Jacobson LP; Research Triangle Institute, Durham, North Carolina: Catellier DJ; P11-Jan-23erson-Reported Outcomes Core: Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois: Gershon R, Cella D. ECHO Awardees and Cohorts—University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO: Dabelea D; University of California, UC Davis Medical Center Mind Institute, Davis, CA: Schmidt R; Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA: Oken E; University of Illinois, Beckman Institute, Urbana, IL: Schantz S.
Corresponding Author: Jennifer L. Ames, PhD, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612; Phone: (510) 891-3892; Email: [email protected]